A CASE CONTROL STUDY ON RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY AND ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT OF NEONATES
Aim: To determine whether residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW) neonates and establish a dose response relationship. Design: Case control study. Setting: In the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit-II of Lady Wallington Hospital, Lahore and Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Hospital Lahore for one-year duration from May 2019 to May 2020. Methodology: Mothers giving birth to a newborn LBW (3), multiple pregnancies and
... ies and stillbirths. 100 cases and 200 controls between the ages of 20 and 30 were included. Information on ETS exposure and other LBW risk factors was collected within 24 hours of delivery. Clinical information such as maternal hemoglobin levels, birth weight and gestational age of the newborn were obtained from hospital records. Results: In univariate analysis, preterm pregnancy, low socioeconomic status, previous neonate with LBW, no use of antenatal care (ANC), severe anemia, and exposure to ETS were statistically significantly associated with newborn LBW and controlled by logistic regression analysis, corrected quotient the odds for the association of ETS exposure with neonatal LBW was 3.16 (95% CI = 1.88-5.28). A dose-response relationship was also found, which was statistically significant (10-20 cigarettes / day: OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.78-9.26 and> 20 cigarettes / day, OR = 17.62, 95% CI = 3.76-82.43). Conclusion: Exposure to ETS during pregnancy is associated with neonatal LBW. Therefore, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of the health risks associated with ETS during pregnancy and to introduce appropriate behavioral changes as one of the strategies to reduce LBW. Key words: environmental tobacco smoke, etiology, low birth weight, newborn, passive smoking.