E-Government Project Design in Developing Countries
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework as an integrated approach to Electronic Government project design and evaluation in developing countries. Innovations In information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have resulted in a radical transformation of business models, opening new channels of communication and offering cost-effective methods for business processes. Research in e-Government underscores the adoption of these technologies by Governments for the provision
... more effective and efficient service delivery. Yet failures of e-Government projects in developing countries are well-documented and a review of the literature suggests that there remains, to an extent, disconnects between e-Government research and actual policy formulation processes or professional practices in developing countries. This paper asserts that for these smaller economies, e-Government project design and evaluation necessitates a more integrated approach which draws from research in the e-Government and ICT4D domains; thus, encompassing a multiple stakeholder perspective including Government (as primary stakeholder) and citizens/businesses. Such an approach that encapsulates the unique characteristics of smaller economies offers a practical analytical tool in their design of e-Government projects, highlighting core components for consideration and identifying where misalignment between stakeholder needs and systems objectives may occur. An interpretivist research paradigm rooted in qualitative data analyses offers a "process of describing, interpreting and seeking understanding and possibilities in order to reach a shared meaning" [32, p. S3]. The initial conceptual framework is therefore developed from a critical review of the literature which assists in identifying the key research themes. The structured-case approach then follows an iterative non-sequential cycle in the refinement of the model through: (a) planning of the research to be undertaken; (b) data collection; (c) data analysis; and (d) reflection on the outcomes  . The literature is therefore first examined to gain an understanding of the primary components in e-Government design. These components are used in the development of the conceptual framework. Future research findings of e-Government projects in developing countries, and a continued critical review of the literature, will contribute to successive iterations and refinement of the framework. "Therefore, the conceptual framework is a series of evolving models that are reviewed and refined over the life of the research project." [31, p. 235].