R. Dec. Ward
1907 Science  
GENERAL SUMMARY. tered 29.51 inches at Wilmington and 29.43 at Hatteras. The The month of October presented several meteorological fea-range in atmospheric Pressure for the district was unusually tures of unusual interest. While the month as a whole was quite large, namely, 2-13 inches. warm, the mean temperature for the entire district averaging AS a rule the month was pleasant, with a high average num-Over 2.5" above the normal, a period of much colder %yeather pre-ber Of Clear days, and
more » ... lear days, and conditions were favorable for outdoor occuvailed toward the close of the month that gave the lowest t,em-pations in most of the district. The dry earth rapidly absorbed peratures ever experiencecl in October at inany places from the rainfall which, however, was generally insufficient to restore North Carolina south to northern Georgia and Alabama. How-the normal water contents of the soil in nearly all sections, except ever, the heavy t o killing frosts on the 25th t o 31st occurred close Floriclathe several States embraced in the district. The advent of this As compared with normal conclitions October was a very cold wave was signalizecl by snow flurries which established new warin month, the mild weather continuing practically uninterrecords for the earliest occurrence of snow in Virginia, North rupted froin the first to nearly the close of the month, when a Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Generally only traces were pronounced cold spell prevailed. during which unusually low tenireceived, but at Rock House, N. C., 0.5 inch, unnieltecl, fell, ancl peratures were registered antl killing frosts were general except Mentone, Ala., reported 0.2 inch, unmelted, on the 25th, the near the Gulf coast. Positive temperature departures occurred the earliest measurable snowfall in the history of the State. The at! all stations escepb over the southern half of Florida, where rainfall for the district was generally above normal, the escess there were small deficiencies, not. esceeding 2" at. any point. averaging but 0.78 inch for all the States except Florida, where From northern Florida where the departure was +2" the excess the average was 4.85 inches above normal. in monthly mean temperature gradually increased toward the Another important phenomenonwas the tropical storm that north to over +4" in the northern portion of the Gulf States and swept over Florida and the south Atlantic coast from October the western portions of South Carolina, North Carolina, and 17 to 20. This clisturbance was more destructive than the simi-Virginia. A t nearly all the regular Weather Bureau stations, lar storm of last year, because it covered a much greater terriescept those in Florida, the departure was close to +3". The tory. It moved directly northward over the central portion of average temperature for the entire district! was 66.5", or 2.7" the Peninsula of Florida, thence along the coasts of Georgia ancl above the normal. The greatest average excess in temperature South Carolina, decreasing in force as it moved northward so occurred in Nort.11 Carolina antl South Carolina (+3.5") and the that it caused only moderate gales in eastern North Carolina and least in Florida (+OX"). The mean for Georgia for October, Virginia. In Florida and southeastern Georgia much clamage 1910, has been exceeded but once cluring the past! 20 years, and was wrought by the heavy rains and dangerous gales, the loss ap-in Alabama and Mississippi the month was the warmest Octoprosimating over half a million dollars. In Florida about 30 ber since 1900. lives were lost, mostly in sparsely settled districts, elsewhere The warm and agreeable conclitions that continued almost there was no loss of life owing to the perfect distribution of the undisturbed until the 24th might well be described as a veritable forewarnings of the approach of the storm by the Weather Bu-Indian Summer. There were two marked periods of warm reau. A large number of vessels remained in harbor in safety; a weather cluring which the highest temperatures ranged from 85" few that ventured to continue their voyage were lost or greatly to over 95" in various portions of the district. The first of these damaged. A complete description of the storm is given at the prevailed from the 1st to Gth, with the highest temperature in all end of this summary. States on the 1st or 2d (in the Virginia area on the 6t.h), and the The district came under the influence of about 6 areas of low second from the 16th to Blst, but with more moderate temperaand 8 areas of high atmospheric pressure during the month. tures. The highest temperature in Virginia was 89" on the 6th The general rains of the 6th to 9th accompanied a disturbance at several places, but in all other States the highest temperathat movcd from Oklahoma on the 5th to the mouth of the Mis-tures ranged between 05" and 100". sissippi on the Gth, after which it lingered in the Gulf of Mesico A moderate fall in temperature took place on the 23d and 24th, until the Sth, during which time the pressure was high on the with the earliest formation of light frost for the season in the north Atlantic coast. The rains of the 27th to 28th were partly northern portion of the Gulf States and in the mountainous clue to a storm over the lower Lakes an.d partly to the rapid region in other sections. The cool weather continued ancl a change of temperature brought about by the cold wave advaucinore marked fall in temperature, preceded by light snow fluring from the northwest. This cold wave appeared in the exries, occurred on the 25th, and a pronounced cold spell prevailed treme Northwest on the morning of the 57th, with a pressure of during the closing days of the month, with freezing teniperaover 30.70 inches, ancl spread rapidly over the eastern and south-tures or killing frosts throughout the districit on the 29th, 30th, ern portions of the country. On the inorning of the 30th when and 31st, escept near the Gulf and south Atlantic coasts. Thin the lowest temperatures for the month were experienced the ice was observed even as far south as Biloxi, .
doi:10.1126/science.26.653.25 pmid:17754781 fatcat:shqhkeijljdbrcqyobihhzm32m