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When Problem Solving Followed by Instruction Works: Evidence for Productive Failure
Review of Educational Research
When learning a new concept, should students engage in problem solving followed by instruction (PS-I) or instruction followed by problem solving (I-PS)? Noting that there is a passionate debate about the design of initial learning, we report evidence from a meta-analysis of 53 studies with 166 comparisons that compared PS-I with I-PS design. Our results showed a significant, moderate effect in favor of PS-I (Hedge's g 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.20; 0.51]). The effects were even strongerdoi:10.3102/00346543211019105 fatcat:pggrjnoenvb43fhvdey4mdl2ze