When using sound with a text or picture is not beneficial for learning

Slava Kalyuga
2000 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology  
<span>Conventional wisdom tells us that two modalities (visual and auditory) are better than one modality in any instructional message. This paper describes two cases where combining audio explanations with visual instructions has had negative rather than positive or neutral effects. The results were explained as a consequence of working memory overload. Some guiding principles in the design of multimedia instruction are suggested.</span>
doi:10.14742/ajet.1829 fatcat:enu5pyss2vejpcifv37yiihzz4