Механізми стійкості до антибіотиків представників родини Enterobacteriaceae
Vìsnik Dnìpropetrovsʹkogo Unìversitetu: Serìâ Bìologìâ, Medicina
The paper deals with the basic medical scheme of antibiotics use for treatment of lesions caused by enterobacteria and mechanisms of resistance of Enterobacteriaceae to different classes of antibiotics. It is known that the main mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics are enzymatic inactivation, modification of the target, efflux, violation of conduct through the membrane and formation of metabolic shunt. The most common cases of resistance to beta-lactams among Enterobacteriaceae relate to
... aceae relate to production of plasmid and chromosomal beta-lactamases, violation of the permeability of the outer membrane, and modification of target penicillin binding proteins. Active release of antibiotics from the cell, or efflux, in Enterobacteriaceae is used for maintaining resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, carbapenems. Genes of efflux system are localized on plasmids and contribute to rapid spreading among Enterobacteriaceae. Mutations are the basis of resistance to novobiocinum and rifampicinum. Enzymatic inactivation by modifying is typical for resistance to aminoglycosides. Three groups of enzymes are engaged in the process, by adding the molecule of acetic acid, phosphate or adenine. Joining of these groups is irreversible and leads to complete loss of biological activity of the antibiotic. Resistance to aminoglycosides appears also due to inhibition of drug penetration, that is associated with genetically determined mechanisms of electron transport through the membrane. Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is associated with the modification of topoisomerase II and IV which are targets of these groups of antibiotics. Resistance is possible as a result of changes in the structure of the target, breaching of penetration into the cell, and active release from the cell. The highest level of resistance is develope in the case of two- or three-stage mutations in one or the other, or both, subunits in different genes. At the same time, for breaching of the bacterial cell it is enough to suppress the activity of only one enzyme associated with different functions of both topoisomerases. Another mechanism of resistance to quinolones is the reduction of permeability through bacterial outer membrane, that it's possible due to decreasing of permeability of porine channels. In this case, decreasing of permeability efficacy takes place not only for quinolones, but also for other classes of antibitics. In addition, reduced sensitivity to quinolones efflux may play the significant role. For clinical strains of microorganisms, cross-resistance to various drugs, associated with simultaneous production of various enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, is typical.