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Ecology of Social Evolution
2 when soldiers are more effective, fewer of them can be produced, leading to higher production of dispersers. Soldiers were apparently lost in two lineages, in both cases in conjunction with a shift to a phylogenetically-divergent species of Acacia host plant. Our analyses demonstrate that the evolution of soldiers in thrips is driven by a combination of selective pressures at three levels, from host-plant, to conspecific interactions, to kleptoparasites.doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75957-7_3 fatcat:djmaxx3ecvax7d2is6tmgq2ugi