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"Rapping is part of the cultural heritage of Black ghetto life. According to Black semantics it not only denotes ordinary conversation, but also defines specific ways of communication. In the 1960s many linguists, sociologists and psychologists conducted thorough research on the behaviour and language-use of 'ghetto Blacks'" (Remes). In his book Black Popular Music in America, Arnold Shaw reports that rapping has been associated with the hip-hop culture "since the mid Seventies in the Uniteddoi:10.13136/2281-4582/2015.i6.311 fatcat:6pfjgawysbhhdcz5w7wj7ksaci