Genome-Wide Analysis of the D-type Cyclin Gene Family Reveals Differential Expression Patterns and Stem Development in the Woody Plant Prunus mume
Cyclins, a prominent class of cell division regulators, play an extremely important role in plant growth and development. D-type cyclins (CYCDs) are the rate-limiting components of the G1 phase. In plants, studies of CYCDs are mainly concerned with herbaceous plants, yet little information is available about these genes in perennial woody plants, especially ornamental plants. Here, twelve Prunus mume CYCD (PmCYCDs) genes are identified and characterized. The PmCYCDs were named on the basis of
... d on the basis of orthologues in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Gene structure and conserved domains of each subgroup CYCDs was similar to that of their orthologues in A. thaliana and O. sativa. However, PmCYCDs exhibited different tissue-specific expression patterns in root, stem, leaf, bud, and fruit organs. The results of qRT-PCR showed that all PmCYCDs, except PmCYCD5;2 and PmCYCD7;1, were primarily highly expressed in leaf buds, shoots, and stems. In addition, the transcript levels of PmCYCD genes were analyzed in roots under different treatments, including exogenous applications of NAA, 6-BA, GA3, ABA, and sucrose. Interestingly, although PmCYCDs were induced by sucrose, the extent of gene induction among PmCYCD subgroups varied. The induction of PmCYCD1;2 by hormones depended on the presence of sucrose. PmCYCD3;1 was stimulated by NAA, and induction was strengthened when sugar and hormones were applied together. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PmCYCDs are functional in plant stem development and provides a basis for selecting members of the cyclin gene family as candidate genes for ornamental plant breeding.