Complete chloroplast genomes of three important species, Abelmoschus moschatus, A. manihot and A. sagittifolius: Genome structures, mutational hotspots, comparative and phylogenetic analysis in Malvaceae
Abelmoschus is an economically and phylogenetically valuable genus in the family Malvaceae. Owing to coexistence of wild and cultivated form and interspecific hybridization, this genus is controversial in systematics and taxonomy and requires detailed investigation. Here, we present whole chloroplast genome sequences and annotation of three important species: A. moschatus, A. manihot and A. sagittifolius, and compared with A. esculentus published previously. These chloroplast genome sequences
... nged from 163121 bp to 163453 bp in length and contained 132 genes with 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. Comparative analyses revealed that amino acid frequency and codon usage had similarity among four species, while the number of repeat sequences in A. esculentus were much lower than other three species. Six categories of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, but A. moschatus and A. manihot did not contain hexanucleotide SSRs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of A/T, T/A and C/T were the largest number type, and the ratio of transition to transversion was from 0.37 to 0.55. Abelmoschus species showed relatively independent inverted-repeats (IR) boundary traits with different boundary genes compared with the other related Malvaceae species. The intergenic spacer regions had more polymorphic than protein-coding regions and intronic regions, and thirty mutational hotpots (≥200 bp) were identified in Abelmoschus, such as start-psbA, atpB-rbcL, petD-exon2-rpoA, clpP-intron1 and clpP-exon2.These mutational hotpots could be used as polymorphic markers to resolve taxonomic discrepancies and biogeographical origin in genus Abelmoschus. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of 33 Malvaceae species indicated that they were well divided into six subfamilies, and genus Abelmoschus was a well-supported clade within genus Hibiscus.