Performance assessment: Teachers beliefs and practices in higher education
Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
In educating the students, teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning influenced not only on what to teach and how to do it, but also on how to assess their students. Education has a goal that students can apply the knowledge gained in real world activities. Through assessment process, it helps them to understand their strengths and weaknesses of their abilities development. This research aims to find out teachers' beliefs about performance assessment and how they use it to assess their
... ssess their students in one of public college under The Ministry of Industry in Indonesia. Data findings are obtained by using interviews, observation and document analysis conducted on T1 and T2 as the participants. Researcher used the five elements of performance assessment to make the instruments and analyze the findings. Results indicated that there were differences between what they say and what they do. The differences appeared because of the theories they knew, their own knowledge and experiences they have in teaching. 519 helps not only to measure students' improvements through several kind of tests but also to perform well in the process. The students' learning needs nowadays do not fit the traditional model. They are no longer learn the learning facts and basic skills, but the students need to acquire more complex skills in conceptualisation and problem-solving. Students are expected to use and develop the knowledge they get, connect all the knowledge they have to build understanding of the topics that have been determined, practice them with assignments and present the final results through communication  . They need learning experiences from those kind of tasks that they may expect to face in real life. Authentic assessment is needed to achieve the purpose. It helps teachers to analyze the students' ability improvement that is consistent with the environment outside the class  . Authentic assessment is designed to show their ability of the skills and competencies needed to face real-life problems and also provides feedback to inform them about their development. Performance assessment is one of the assessments that fulfill all of those characteristics. Performance assessment is a method that measure the knowledge and skills that have been mastered by the students  . It offers more than one ways for the students to do the demonstration of their content knowledge and sets of additional skills within the classroom . These additional skills are attitude, creativity, ethics, honesty, teamwork and others behaviors and dispositions that needed in the classroom and real-world. Performance assessment assess productive and observable skills, like oral production, written production, open-ended responses and integrated performance of content-valid tasks  . The types of knowledge and skills that should be mastered by the students are able to create, reflect, solve problems, collect and use informations. The teachers should assess not only these aspects but also on how they use them to perform the tasks. In the implementation of performance assessment, it needs a concrete task, also its coherence with response format and scoring system done by a student and scored by a rater or teacher who assess his/her performances based on the provided procedure and the accuracy of the response. Gareis  supported that a cogent set of intended learning outcomes, authentic performance task, appropriate and feasible response format, accurate and clear prompt, and accurate and reasonably objective performance criteria should be included in implementing performance assessment. Ruiz-Primo and Shavelson  also made a framework of performance assessment that consists of the components of its assessment which is needed in its implementation. Intended learning outcome or learning objective is general statement to be achieved in teaching learning process which is made by the teacher. It is very important to be achieved by the learners in order to know their capabilities in mastering the lessons. It is a result statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, and attitude that should be achieved for the learners, while for the teachers, they should be able to demonstrate all of them in order to help the learners achieved the learning objectives. Tasks, that consist of significant problems and require solutions that use concrete materials correlating with the actions of the students. Wren  states that performance task is a structured situation where the materials given and requested information or action are demontrated to an individual, who generate a response that can be assessed using explicit standards. The performance tasks consist of problems that are targeting the students' knowledge and content as well as their ability in using these skills for reasoning and problem-solving. It also should reflect the real problems that appear in the real-world (authentic). These tasks are very useful to be practiced and used repeatedly because it requires the students to apply their skill and knowledge. Response-format is the media that is used by the teachers to get the students' information of the assessment. Mislevy and Knowles  state that in educational assessment, there are two response-formats available that can be used to collect performance information of the students, that are: (a) selected-response items (where the students are choosing from the choices available, for example multiple-choice, matching or true-false) and (b) constructed-response items (where the students construct their answers by their own responses, for example short-answers or essays). Prompts are usualy used to help in teaching, reminding, and reinforcing students abilities in compiling tasks or practicing set of skills. It can be used also to increase the possibilities of the students to show the desired response. Prompts can be for challenging the students in completing the tasks, but must be recognizable and easily interpreted by them. There are six types of prompts that usually used by the instructors in guiding their students, that are: (a) physical prompts, (b) verbal prompts, (c) model prompts, (d) gestural prompts, (e) visual prompts and (f) prositional prompts . A scoring system, consists not only the judgment of the right answers, but also the reasons of the answers used to do the tasks. The performance assessment scoring should always be made before the tasks and the assessment are being developed. According to  , there are three scoring system that usually used by a teacher in assessing students' performance. The scoring system are rubrics, checklist and rating scale. These components of performance assessment are used by the researcher to define the beliefs of the teachers about this assessment and how it influence its implementation.