Biocatalytic Synthesis of Natural Green Leaf Volatiles Using the Lipoxygenase Metabolic Pathway

Sophie Vincenti, Magali Mariani, Jean-Christophe Alberti, Sabrina Jacopini, Virginie Brunini-Bronzini de Caraffa, Liliane Berti, Jacques Maury
2019 Catalysts  
In higher plants, the lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway combined actions of several enzymes to convert lipid substrates into signaling and defense molecules called phytooxylipins including short chain volatile aldehydes, alcohols, and esters, known as green leaf volatiles (GLVs). GLVs are synthesized from C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids that are oxygenated by lipoxygenase (LOX) to form corresponding hydroperoxides, then the action of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) produces C6 or C9 aldehydes that can
more » ... ydes that can undergo isomerization, dehydrogenation, and esterification. GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to perfumes, cosmetics, and food products. Given the increasing demand in these natural flavors, biocatalytic processes using the LOX pathway reactions constitute an interesting application. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipid profile are converted in natural GLVs with high added value. This review describes the enzymatic reactions of GLVs biosynthesis in the plant, as well as the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved. The various stages of the biocatalytic production processes are approached from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehyde or alcoholic aromas, as well as the biotechnological improvements to enhance the production potential of the enzymatic catalysts.
doi:10.3390/catal9100873 fatcat:w5sogxxc3vaadmt4zxqpljnbxa