Heavy metals as environmental risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: from the perspective of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and oxidative stress

Jobaida Akther, A. H. M. Nurun Nabi, Akio Ebihara
2019 Reviews in Agricultural Science  
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. CVDs were responsible for approximately 31% of all global deaths in 2016, and 85% of all CVD deaths are due to heart attack and stroke. The underlying process in the blood vessels that results in heart attack and stroke is atherosclerosis. A recent study indicated that exposure to environmental toxic heavy metals is associated with an increased risk of CVDs. In this review, we focus on several heavy metals
more » ... eral heavy metals as environmental risk factors for CVDs: arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium and iron. The pathological contribution of these heavy metals to the alternation of two molecular mechanisms: the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and oxidative stress has been discussed. The etiology of heavy metal-induced CVDs is viewed from the perspective of RAAS and oxidative stress. The significance of environmental improvement for better health will also be considered.
doi:10.7831/ras.7.0_68 fatcat:rfql5mp4pvhqfdtut5nhzpadle