Understanding the whole student: holistic multicultural education (first edition)
Journal of ethnic and cultural studies
2007) explained the characteristics of holistic education include the student's physical nature, emotional dynamics, sociopolitical commitments, styles of learning, ethical convictions, and spiritual commitments. In sum, the key concept of holistic education is focused on the idea of integrationintegration of all aspects of a student's being into a harmonious whole; and integration of various students' perspectives, needs and abilities in a classroom into a truly cooperative "learning
... "learning community" (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1988) . The authors expressed holistic education is comprised of Four Holistic Multicultural Domains. These four domains are sensorimotor (physical development), psychosocial (conscious and unconscious relationships between the student and the teacher), cognitive (cultural variations that constitute conceptual "problems"), and ethicospiritual ("how a teacher's spirituality and pedagogical practices in a multicultural setting can enrich each other in a wide variety of ways") (pp. 5-6). This book is divided into two main topics of discussion. Part one discusses terminology, concepts, and theories in the field of the cultural foundations of education. Part two explains important facts, models, and controversies in the field of second language acquisition, with a focus on the acquisition of English as a second language. They provided an extensive "do and don't" list to rationalize the purpose of this book, and what overall ideas they are not attempting to convey to the reader. The authors opened the discussion of the book in a way that focused on the foundation of education and learning in a family and societal structure. The authors described the importance of understanding child development, and how culture is a process that develops over time for the individual, and how the individual interprets their personal understanding of culture along with what they are taught. They asserted that culture is learned, culture is in the individual and the individual in the culture, culture is comprised of subcultures, and within the culture there are boundaries and competencies that the individual must learn in order to contribute and adjust appropriately. The authors concluded chapter one with a brief discussion on how a teacher is a cultural negotiator. This is achieved when a teacher "allows students to explore their own and each other's cultures in a variety of ways that will enliven discussion and enrich the curriculum" (pp. 28). In chapter two, the authors explored the topics of research, theory, and models regarding secondlanguage acquisition. This chapter examined relationships between language, thought and culture, along with the pedagogical implications of interrelationships. Also in chapter two, the authors introduced Krashen's Five Hypotheses about L2 Acquisitions, Cummins ' Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills and Common Underlying Proficiency, and Colliers's L1-Maintenance/L2-Development Pedagogy. Krashen's (1982) idea has been highly influential in the training of English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers for decades. Krashen's first hypothesis is the Acquisition-Learning Distinction. Krashen claimed that language acquisition is a subconscious process. Krashen's hypothesis suggested learners are aware they are using the language as communication, and not aware they are acquiring the language. The authors stated that Krashen's second hypothesis is the Natural Order Hypothesis. This hypothesis explained how grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order. The third hypothesis is the Monitor Hypothesis, and this is perhaps his best-known hypothesis. Acquisition "initiates" our utterances in a second language and is responsible for our fluency. Learning has only one function, and that is as a monitor or editor.