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Many forest ecosystems with a large pine component in the western United States have experienced environmental stress associated with climate change and increased competition with forest densification in the absence of fire. Information on how changes in climate and competition affect carbon allocation to tree growth and defense is needed to anticipate changes to tree vigor and, ultimately, stand structure. This study retrospectively examined the influence of annual climate and competitiondoi:10.3390/f8070244 fatcat:6yg64bm3jzappbxh6h5u2n4dgu