Kondo model in nonequilibrium: Interplay between voltage, temperature, and crossover from weak to strong coupling
Frank Reininghaus, Mikhail Pletyukhov, Herbert Schoeller
Physical Review B
We consider an open quantum system in contact with fermionic metallic reservoirs in a nonequilibrium setup. For the case of spin, orbital or potential fluctuations, we present a systematic formulation of real-time renormalization group at finite temperature, where the complex Fourier variable of an effective Liouvillian is used as flow parameter. We derive a universal set of differential equations free of divergencies written as a systematic power series in terms of the frequency-independent
... -point vertex only, and solve it in different truncation orders by using a universal set of boundary conditions. We apply the formalism to the description of the weak to strong coupling crossover of the isotropic spin-1/2 nonequilibrium Kondo model at zero magnetic field. From the temperature and voltage dependence of the conductance in different energy regimes we determine various characteristic low-energy scales and compare their universal ratio to known results. For a fixed finite bias voltage larger than the Kondo temperature, we find that the temperature-dependence of the differential conductance exhibits non-monotonic behavior in the form of a peak structure. We show that the peak position and peak width scale linearly with the applied voltage over many orders of magnitude in units of the Kondo temperature. Finally, we compare our calculations with recent experiments.