Removing Solar Radiative Effect from the VIIRS M12 Band at 3.7μm for Daytime Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
Operational sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithms are stratified into nighttime and daytime. The nighttime algorithm uses two split-window Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) bands-M15 and M16, centered at ;11 and ;12 mm, respectively-and a shortwave infrared band-M12, centered at ;3.7 mm. The M12 is most transparent and critical for accurate SST retrievals. However, it is not used during the daytime because of contamination by solar radiation, which is reflected by
... h is reflected by the ocean surface and scattered by atmospheric aerosols. As a result, daytime VIIRS SST and cloud mask products and applications are degraded and inconsistent with their nighttime counterparts. This study proposes a method to remove the solar contamination from the VIIRS M12 based on theoretical radiative transfer model analyses. The method uses either of the two VIIRS shortwave bands, centered at 1.6 mm (M10) or 2.25 mm (M11), to correct for the effect of solar reflectance in M12. Subsequently, the corrected daytime brightness temperature in M12 can be used as input into nighttime cloud mask and SST algorithms. Preliminary comparisons with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) SST analysis suggest that the daytime SST products can be improved and potentially reconciled with the nighttime SST product. However, more substantial case studies and assessments using different SST products are required before the transition of this research work into operational products.