Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
sponsible for the predisposition to the tuberculous affection. Other facts which he cites sustain his assumption that cirrho¬ sis of the liver may result directly from tuberculous infection. In short, he insists that although the prevalence of cirrhosis of the liver in hard drinkers and the predisposing influence of alcohol are not to be denied, yet the decisive rôle in the pro¬ duction of the affection does not belong to them, but to bac¬ teria and their toxins. He noted cholelithiasis in 8.6
... lelithiasis in 8.6 per cent. of 209 men, and in 17 per cent, of the 41 women in his ma¬ terial. He ascribes the benefit of extirpation of the enlarged spleen in certain cases to the fact that the spleen is not only the dumping ground for all the foreign bodies circulating in the blood, but is also able to bind and hold toxic substances. The operation removes the organ which, by its faculty of at¬ tracting toxic substances, becomes the source of a condition of chronic intoxication. Icterus was observed in 66 of the 250 cadavers. 114. The Age Laws of the Natural Resisting Forces.-Ascher presents a number of curves drawn from vital statistics and other sources, all of which demonstrate, he thinks, that the natural resisting forces are at their highest point during the age from 5 to 15, and decline each way in a regular progres¬ sion. Knowledge of this law will prevent misconception in many lines in biology, pathology and hygiene. It should be borne in mind, he says, in compiling vital statistics. One of the practical results of this law is that the outlook for sana¬ torium treatment of tuberculosis is most promising between 16 and 20. 115. Origin of Anthracosis of the Lungs.-Beitzke found that insoluble particles passed through the intact intestinal wall of animals and were distributed in the lymph to various organs, but the lungs were least affected. Scarcely any of the particles found their way into the lungs, while other organs, especially the liver and spleen, were gorged with them. The particles which he did find in the lungs he attributes to preceding in¬ halation. Norsk Magazin f. Lasgevidenskaben, Christiania. Last indexed, page 27a. 110 (LXVII, No. 11, Pp. 1249-1376.) »Epidemics and the Weather. (Genius epidemicus.) A. Magelssen. 117 Dlplococcus Found in Noma. (Bakt. undei's0geiser over et tilfíekle af noma.) E. Ilellesen. 118 »Experimental Polyuria and the Hanssen "Variability Test" in Examining Kidney Functioning. (Variabiiitetspr0ven or exp. polyuri.) J. Nicolaysen. 116. Epidemics and the External Forces of Nature.-Mag¬ elssen believes that the curves for the biologic phenomena as well as for the medico-pathologic are nothing but a somewhat modified reflection of the variations of the weather. He thinks that this can be mathematically established, and that the spe¬ cial meteorologie causes for each sickness might thus be ren¬ dered evident. He regards the vital phemoneiia as a conse¬ quence, a reflection of the external forces that surround the organism, acting on it, transforming it and given back. The weaker the organism the less resistance it opposes to the transforming action of external influences. The cause of the so-called "constitutio epidemica" or "genius epidemicus" should be sought in connection with the external forces of Nature, the beneficent as well as the injurious and the destructive, which manifest themselves to us in the various elements of the weather. 118. Tests of Kidney Functioning.-The "variability test" is a combination of extreme dilution of the urine on one day with fluid diet, followed two days later with a dry diet, thus induc¬ ing extreme concentration of the urine. The test requires six days, and the patient must stay in bed, but the findings are extremely instructive as the kidney functioning in these two directions of dilution and concentration is compared, the spe¬ cific gravity of the urine reaching its lowest and highest fig¬ ures in turn. ' Nicolaysen examines the urine every two hours and gives the curves of 28 cases of various kidney affections in which these tests were applied, with the findings in 18 healthy persons. He also gives the curves of three cases in which he applied the experimental polyuria test after catheterization of the ureter, having the patient drink three glasses of water or water gruel; he examined the urine every half-hour before and a fter. Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, Turin. Last indexed, page 183. 110 (XXX, No. 3, Pp. 217-340.) Mononuclear Leucocytes. (Sui globuli bianchi mononucleati.) A. Ferrata. 120 Postmortem Forms of Myelin. (Forme mieliniche postmortali.) E. Bizzozero. 121 Branchiogenic Relies and Tumors Originating in Them. (Residui branchiogeni e neoformazione cui danno origine.) G. Mioni. 122 »Experimental Study of Removal of Thyroids and Parathy¬ roids. (Ablazione delle tiroide e delle paratiroide.) M. Segale. 123 Supernumerary Muscles in Back of Hand. (Moscou sopran. del dorso della mano.) C. Bruni. 124 »Localization of Typhoid Bacilli in Biliary Apparatus. (Loe. del bac. del tifò noli' apparecbio bil.) . Sisto. 122. Ablation of Thyroid and Parathyroids.-Segale tabu¬ lates the results of much experimental research in this line. They demonstrate that tetany, although of frequent develop¬ ment after thyroidectomy, is not a fundamental symptom. It is similar to death from dilatation of the heart in a case of tuberculosis; the heart disturbances are not the essential feat¬ ure of tuberculosis. After parathyroidectomy such profound disturbance of the metabolism occurs that all efforts on the part of the organism to repair it are absolutely ineffectual. The old notion of cachexia strumipriva is based on solid foundations, he states, and means more than ever before, only the disturbances are not due to the extirpation of the thy¬ roid, but rather to the parathyroidectomy unwittingly done at the same time. The symptomatology1· is the same whether the parathyroids alone or the parathyroids plus the thyroid are extirpated. True cachexia strumipriva kills in from 15 to 16 days, incidentally by tetany perhaps, but in reality by the intense disturbance of the metabolism resulting from lack of the parathyroid function. 124. Localization of Typhoid Bacilli in Biliary Apparatus.-Sisto describes two cases in which a suppurative process de¬ veloped in the gall bladder in the course of typhoid fever. In the first case ulcération progressed to necrosis and perforation of the walls of the gall bladder. The resulting peritonitis re¬ mained limited and encapsulated, but the patient succumbed later to diffuse peritonitis from perforation of an intestinal ulcération. In the second case the typhoid fever was of a mild type, but very protracted. In the seventh week a suppurative cholecystitis developed, but without ulcération or necrosis. The process spread to the liver, where numerous abscesses fol¬ lowed. The symptoms in this case were merely a continuous dull pain in the right upper abdomen, increased by pressure, with rigidity of the abdominal wall. This pain was probably the sign of a slow development of the cholecystitis and in¬ volvement of the liver. The patient succumbed the ninth week of the typhoid fever after presenting symptoms of bronchopneumonia. Books Received Acknowledgment of all books received will be made in this column and this will be deemed by us a full equivalent to those sending them. A selection from these volumes will be made for review, as dictated by their merits, or in the interests of our readers.