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The history of language teaching from the nineteenth century to the modern day is discussed including the initiatives of the Council of Europe following ratification of the Convention on Cultural Cooperation in 1954. It was this post-war initiative that paved the way for development of the Threshold level as a marker for language competency. More recently Waystage and Vantage levels have been added, and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages now provides a six level frameworkdoi:10.1017/s2041536210000097 fatcat:5xebj36lrbbv5hmcoiftwftxgy