Spectral Reflectance in Silver Birch Genotypes from Three Provenances in Finland
The goal of this study was to investigate the variation in the leaf spectral reflectance and its association with other leaf traits from 12 genotypes among three provenances of origin (populations) in a common garden for Finnish silver birch trees in 2015 and 2016. The spectral reflectance was measured in the laboratory from the detached leaves in the wavelength range of visible and near-infrared (VNIR, 400–1000 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1000–2500 nm). The variation among the provenance
... mong the provenance was initially visualized with principal component analysis (PCA) and a clear separation among the provenances was detected with the discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) depicting a less strong variation among the genotypes within the provenances. Wavelengths contributing to the separation of the genotypes and provenances were identified from the contribution plot of DAPC and the red edge was strongly related to the differences. Chlorophyll content showed clear provenance variation and was associated with the separation among the genotypes and provenances in the DAPC space. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI705,750) and chlorophyll reflectance index (CRI) showed clear significance among the provenances, whereas NDVI670,780 showed no variation. The variation in the chlorophyll content and the CRI and red edge-based NDVI indices indicated seasonal variation as the chlorophyll content starts increasing in early June. The correlation of foliar chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll-related spectral indices for the discrimination of provenances and genotypes are reported for the first time in a naturally occurring tree species consecutively for two years.