Gender-Related Differences in Mechanics of the Sprint Start and Sprint Acceleration of Top National-Level Sprinters
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
(1) Background: Within the current study we aimed at exploring gender-related differences and the relationship between sprint start block kinematics and kinetics and sprint acceleration force–velocity (F-v) relationship parameters (maximal force [F0], maximal velocity [v0], maximal power [Pmax] and slope) in top national-level sprinters. (2) Methods: Twenty-eight sprinters (6 females) performed 10 maximal 30-m sprints. Start block and acceleration kinematics and kinetics were collected with an
... collected with an instrumented sprint start block and a laser distance sensor (KiSprint system). Displacement-time data were used to determine the F-v relationship through Samozino's method. (3) Results: Start block rear foot maximal force (effect size [ES] = 1.08), rate of force development (ES = 0.90–1.33), F0 (ES = 1.38), v0 (ES = 1.83) and Pmax (ES = 1.95) were higher in males than in females (p ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in the slope, and ratio of horizontal-to-resultant force. F0, v0, and Pmax generally presented higher correlations with the start block kinetics (median r [range] = 0.49 [0.28, 0.78]) than with the kinematics (median r [range] = −0.27 [−0.52, 0.28]). (4) Conclusions: We confirmed that sprint block phase and sprint acceleration mechanics should be mutually assessed when analyzing sprinting performance. KiSprint system could provide more accurate information regarding mechanical pattern and technique during sprint initiation and acceleration, and potentially help create a more personalized and effective training program.