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ABSTRACTTwo scientists and sailors from the Spanish Navy, Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, the Italian sailor and explorer Alessandro Malaspina, and the German sage Alexander von Humboldt were the main actors in three great voyages to Spanish America between the second-third of the 18thcentury and the beginning of the 19thcentury. This enabled them to provide three first hand«photographs»of the state of the Spanish empire in America at three different moments in time: approximately before,doi:10.1017/s0212610915000245 fatcat:vi3dspf2ybdijea53h7hhkxsxy