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The spread of an ensemble of weather predictions initialized from an ensemble Kalman filter may grow slowly relative to other methods for initializing ensemble predictions, degrading its skill. Several possible causes of the slow spread growth were evaluated in perfect-and imperfect-model experiments with a twolayer primitive equation spectral model of the atmosphere. The causes examined were the covariance localization, the additive noise used to stabilize the assimilation method anddoi:10.1175/2010mwr3246.1 fatcat:x2dwo6anknemxddvpr7hwoekje