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The vacuum chambers of the LHC's arcs operate in a temperature range between 1.9 K, i.e. the temperature of the superconducting magnets, and 20 K. At such low temperatures, most of the residual gas species are efficiently adsorbed on the cold surface. LHC's proton beam emits synchrotron radiation inside its bending magnets and, consequently, electrons are extracted from the surrounding walls by the photoelectric effect. The successive proton bunches accelerates the photo-electrons, building updoi:10.23732/cyrcp-2020-007.159 fatcat:mheoygpzzvfbla2byar6ttwylu