RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4 [article]

Benedikt Buchspies, Tina Carmesin, Usama Khalid, Carla Orozco Garcia, Ruth Schaldach, Carla Orozco Garcia, TUHH Universitätsbibliothek, TUHH Universitätsbibliothek, Isidora Vrbavac, Tina Carmesin
2019
RUVIVAL Publication Series is a compilation of literature reviews on topics concerned with the revitalisation of rural areas. RUVIVAL Publication Series is part of the e-learning project RUVIVAL and each of the two contributions in this publication is connected to further interactive multimedia material, which can be reached under www.ruvival.de. The first literature review is concerned with energy access for sustainable rural development, with a focus on distributed renewable energy for rural
more » ... e energy for rural electrification in Africa. Access to electricity is a key mechanism for the improvement of living standards and community services such as healthcare and education, for the reduction of poverty and enhancement of gender justice. However, in 2016, 14 % of the world's population still lived without electricity, mostly located in rural areas of economically poor areas. Off-grid and mini-grid systems are summarised under the term 'distributed energy systems' or 'decentralised energy systems' and provide a fast and cost efficient method for rural electrification. Applicable technologies include solar photovoltaics, wind power, small hydro power and energy from residual biomass. Those small-scale renewable energy systems offer significant reductions in fossil fuel combustion and entailed emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper reviews distributed renewable energy systems and concentrates on energy services for electricity generation in rural Africa. The second literature review deals with integrated decentralised wastewater treatment for rural areas with focus on resource recovery. The most appropriate and sustainable solution for wastewater management in any setting is the one that is economically, environmentally, and technically sound, as well as socially acceptable for the specific community. Centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems are found to be resource intensive and complex, especially for low density population regions with dispersed households. Alternatively, the approach of decentralised wastewater tr [...]
doi:10.15480/882.1740 fatcat:vto2j5apkncl5abs4uxenk65we