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A subfactor is an inclusion $N \subset M$ of von Neumann algebras with trivial centers. The simplest example comes from the fixed points of a group action $M^G \subset M$, and subfactors can be thought of as fixed points of more general group-like algebraic structures. These algebraic structures are closely related to tensor categories and have played important roles in knot theory, quantum groups, statistical mechanics, and topological quantum field theory. There's a measure of size of adoi:10.1090/s0273-0979-2013-01442-3 fatcat:xqf64tokvngufaomuurr2lcfua