Characteristics of Biologically-Active Substances of Amaranth Oil Obtained by Various Techniques
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Amaranth seeds and their main product amaranth oil are a rich source of bioactive substances. The non-saponifi able substances which accompany lipids include: squalene, tocopherols, sterols and others. The aim of the study was to compare the content of squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols in amaranth oils obtained by various techniques. The oil was extracted from seeds (Amaranthus cruentus) with the use of supercritical fl uid extraction (SFE), extraction with a chloroform/methanol mixture
... methanol mixture and expeller pressing. Contents of squalene and tocopherols were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The content of sterols in oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest squalene content was found for the oil obtained as a result of supercritical CO2 extraction (6.95 g/100 g of oil). A lower content of squalene was noted in the oil extracted with organic solvents and in cold-pressed oil - 6.00 and 5.74 g/100 g of oil, respectively. The amaranth oils were characterised by a signifi cant content of tocopherols. The oil obtained as a result of fl uid extraction was characterised by the highest content of tocopherols (131.7 mg/100 g of oil). A dominating homologue (40%) was β-tocopherol. Also the same sample was characterised by the highest content of sterols (2.49 g/100 g of oil). In all samples the predominating sterol was sum of α-spinasterol and sitosterol, which accounted for 45%, 56% and 53% of total analysed sterols for the oil obtained from SFE, from extraction with solvents and from cold pressing, respectively.