A Study on the Anatomical Variations in Diaphyseal Nutrient Foramina of Humerus and its Clinical Implications
International Journal of Current Research and Review
Aim: The study is aimed to determine number, location and direction of nutrient foramen, to assess whether nutrient foramen obeys rule of ossification, that is directed away from the growing end of the bone or not. Methodology: The study constituted n = 122 (68 right, 54 left) humeri collected from the Department of Anatomy, Nimra Institute of Medical Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. All the measurements were taken using standard anthropometric techniques. Results: Number, direction
... : Number, direction and location of nutrient foramen in relation with surfaces and zones of humeri were determined. Majority 79.51% of the humeri had single nutrient foramen, 13.93% double, 3.28% triple, whereas 3.28% humeri no nutrient foramina. Majority 85.24% of the nutrient foramina were located on antero-medial surface, followed by 10.65% on posterior surface and 6.56% on anterolateral surface of shaft of the humerus. In majority 85.24% of bones foramina were present in zone II, followed by zone I (9.02%), then zone III (5.74%). All foramina were found to be directed towards the lower end of humeri. Conclusion: The results confirm that the knowledge of the number and position of the nutrient foramina in humerus would be very useful in providing clinical information in preventing intra-operative injury of nutrient artery during orthopedic surgeries and will be relevant as reference for surgical procedures.