LEGAL ISSUES SURROUNDINGS AIRLINE ALLIANCES AND CODE-SHARE ARRANGEMENTS: INSIGHTS FOR THE INDONESIAN AND ASEAN AIRLINE INDUSTRY

Ridha Aditya Nugraha
2018 Indonesia Law Review  
Following the liberalization of the aviation industry, airlines have been searching for a suitable business model that will support their expansion. Today, the business concept of the airline alliance is deemed as the correct answer, as many large airlines have joined to secure their business. Codeshare arrangements could be considered as the perfect implementation of an airline alliance. Alliances are more flexible than crossborder mergers and takeovers due to national restrictions, making
more » ... ictions, making such alliances legally viable and therefore preferable. However, codeshare arrangements have further legal implications that have led to classification of carriers and ended up as a liability issue. Several conventions and protocols, which are known as the Warsaw-Montreal regime, are applicable to dealing with liabilities to protect airline passengers. Anti-competition and consumer protection issues are the other main issues. This article aims to analyze the legal issues surrounding the tragic code-shared Flight MH17 incident, while also mentioning the rights of the Indonesian passengers' relatives. Compensation issues in the recent case are discussed. Finally, insights into the legal risks faced by codeshare arrangements for the rapidly growing Indonesian and Southeast Asian airline markets are also provided. Abstrak Seiring dengan liberalisasi industri penerbangan, berbagai maskapai penerbangan tengah mencari model bisnis terbaik guna berekspansi. Dewasa ini konsep aliansi antar maskapai penerbangan sebagaimana tengah dilakukan banyak maskapai besar dianggap sebagai suatu solusi. Pengaturan kode penerbangan bersama diyakini sebagai perwujudan sempurna akan implementasi konsep aliansi antar maskapai. Ia lebih fleksibel dari tindakan penggabungan (merger) maupun pengambilalihan (takeover) lintas batas negara yang umumnya terkendala berbagai batasan menurut hukum nasional masing-masing; lantas menjadikannya sebagai preferensi utama. Namun, konsep pengaturan kode penerbangan bersama juga memiliki implikasi hukum dimana berujung kepada klasifikasi maskapai penerbangan beserta pertanggungjawabannya yang kompleks. Saat ini terdapat beberapa konvensi dan protokol guna melindungi hak para penumpang maskapai penerbangan sebagaimana dikenal sebagai rezim Warsaw-Montreal. Persoalan seputar hukum anti-kompetisi maupun perlindungan konsumen terkait pengaturan kode penerbangan bersama juga akan dibahas. Artikel ini akan menganalisis isu hukum seputar insiden tragis Penerbangan MH17 beserta hakhak keluarga penumpang berkewarganegaraan Indonesia; termasuk perihal pemberian ganti kerugian. Pada akhirnya akan disajikan suatu saran, baik kepada maskapai Indonesia maupun ASEAN, terkait potensi permasalahan hukum dibalik kode penerbangan bersama. Kata kunci: aliansi maskapai penerbangan, pengaturan codeshare, tanggung jawab, kompensasi, perlindungan konsumen Indonesia Law Review (2018) 1: 37-62
doi:10.15742/ilrev.v8n1.382 fatcat:nmqpldwvcfhh7bypjo5dqw3yza