Investigation of Karst Spring Flow Cessation Using Grey System Model
Globally karst aquifers store large amount of precious water and create beautiful karst springs in many places. However, most of the karst springs flow declined, and some of the karst springs dried up with the effects of extensive groundwater development and climate variation. For example, Jinci Springs (China) is known for the beautiful landscape it created and large area of paddy fields it irrigated. Unfortunately, it dried up in May 1994. For better understanding of the hydrological
... of karst springs, this study introduced grey system models to quantify spring flow taking Jinci Springs as an example. Based on the characteristics of Jinci Springs flow, the spring flow was divided into two stages: the first stage (1954-1960), when the spring flow was affected only by climate variation; and the second stage (1961-1994), when the flow was impacted by both climate variation and anthropogenic activities. Results showed that the Jinci Springs flow had strong relations with precipitation occurring one year and three years earlier in the first stage. Subsequently, a grey system GM (1, 3) model with one-year and three-year lags was set up for the first stage. By using the GM (1, 3) model, we simulated the spring flow in the second stage under effects of climate variation only. Subtracting the observed spring flow from the simulated flow, we obtained the contribution of anthropogenic activities to Jinci Springs cessation. The contribution of anthropogenic activities and climate variation to Jinci Springs cessation was 1.46m3/s and 0.62m3/s, respectively. Finally, each human activity causing spring flow decline was estimated.