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Following Radford's proof of Lagrange's theorem for pointed Hopf algebras, we prove Lagrange's theorem for Hopf monoids in the category of connected species. As a corollary, we obtain necessary conditions for a given subspecies K of a Hopf monoid H to be a Hopf submonoid: the quotient of any one of the generating series of H by the corresponding generating series of K must have nonnegative coefficients. Other corollaries include a necessary condition for a sequence of nonnegative integers to bedoi:10.4153/cjm-2011-098-9 fatcat:hbfxmrgkujdvffacs5ysztrqai