Grid Forming Inverter Modeling, Control, and Applications
This paper surveys current literature on modeling methods, control techniques, protection schemes, applications, and real-world implementations pertaining to grid forming inverters (GFMIs). Electric power systems are increasingly being augmented with inverter-based resources (IBRs). While having a growing share of IBRs, conventional synchronous generator-based voltage and frequency control mechanisms are still prevalent in the power industry. Therefore, IBRs are experiencing a growing demand
... mimicking the behavior of synchronous generators, which is not possible with conventional grid following inverters (GFLIs). As a solution, the concept of GFMIs is currently emerging, which is drawing increased attention from academia and the industry. This paper presents a comprehensive review of GFMIs covering recent advancements in control technologies, fault ride-through capabilities, stability enhancement measures, and practical implementations. Moreover, the challenges in adding GFMIs into existing power systems, including a seamless transition from grid-connected mode to the standalone mode and vice versa, are also discussed in detail. Recently commissioned projects in Australia, the UK, and the US are taken as examples to highlight the trend in the power industry in adding GFMIs to address issues related to weak grid scenarios. Research directions in terms of voltage control, frequency control, system strength improvement, and regulatory framework are also discussed. This paper serves as a resource for researchers and power system engineers exploring solutions to the emerging problems with high penetration of IBRs, focusing on GFMIs. INDEX TERMS Current control, fault ride-through, grid forming inverters, power synchronization control, small-signal and transient stability, virtual inertia.