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The illicit drug crops opium and coca are conventionally regarded as sources of instability, an 'evil' that breeds fragility and violence. Fragile states are supposed to be most vulnerable to their production and consequent harms. Yet by looking into the local contexts of the world's leading opium and coca producers -Afghanistan, Myanmar, Colombia and Boliviathese illicit crops are found to also be sources of stability, even drivers of economic growth. They enable marginalized communities anddoi:10.1080/14747731.2020.1718825 fatcat:2o3uxxlrtvbudfmp4hwvrzt5x4