Public Health and Poor-Law Medical Services
BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)
March 5, 1887.] THE BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~4 3~P UBLIC HEALTH AND POOR-LAW MEDICAL SERVICIES. ENGLISH URBAN MORTALITY IN 1886. IN the accompanying table will be found summarised the vital and mortal statistics issued by the Registrar-General in his weekly returns for 1886, relating to twenty-eight of the largest English towns. Weekly summaries of these statistics have already been published in these columns. Daring the year under notice, 300,635
... r notice, 300,635 births were registered in the twenty-eight towns, equal to an annual rate of 33.2 per 1,000 of their aggregate population in the middle of 1886, estimatel at rather more than nine millions of persons. In Lonadon the birth-rate did not exceed 32.3 per 1,000, while in the twenty-seven provincial towns it averaged 33.9. Since 1876, when the birth-rate in the large English towns was as high as 38.1 per 1,000, it has continuously declined, and was lower last year than in any precedin3g year on record. The lowest rates during 1886 in the twenty-eight towns were 25. 5 in Brighton, 27. 0 in Huddersfield, and 28.8 in Halifax and ina Bradford; the highest were 39.5 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 39.5 in Preston, and 4 2. 6 in Cardiff. The deaths in the twenty-eight towns last year were equal to an annual rate of 20.9 per 1,000 of the estimated population, and showed a slight increase upon the very low rate in 1885, which was considerably lower than in any year on record. The marked improvement in the health of the urban population of the country n~as, therefore, maintained duriing the past year. Duriing the ten years 1871 80 the rate of mortality in the large towns dealt with by the Registrar-Ger)eral averaged 24.0 per 1,000. In the past five years of the current decade the death-tate has not exceeded 21.4 per 1,000. This reduction in the rate of mortality implies that more than 130,000 persons in the twenty-eight towns have survived the last five years whose deaths would have been recorded had the mean rate of mortality in the precedinig decade been since maintained. It may be here noted that the saviing of life during the same period of five years in Eingland and Wales, as the result of the reduction of the death-rate ot the country generally, is estimated at no less than 450,000. The death-rate in London during 1886, per 1,000 persons estimated to be liviing therein, without distinction of age or sex, was equal to 19.9 per 1,000, while in the twenty-seven provincial townas it averaged 21.8, aind ranged from 17.