Activation of ERK and Mutual Regulation of Stat3 and SP1 Contribute to Inhibition of PDK1 Expression by Atractylenolide-1 in Human Lung Cancer Cells
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Key Words Atractylenolide-1 • ERK1/2 • Stat3 • SP1 • PDK1 • Lung cancer cells Abstract Background/Aims: Atractylodes macrocephula Koidz is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese herbs. One major bioactive compound, atractylenolide-1 (ATL-1), was reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated to this has not been well elucidated. Methods: Cell viability and cell cycle distribution were measured using 3-(4,
... 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the phosphorylation and protein expression of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and transcription factor SP1. QRT-PCR was used to examine the mRNA levels of PDK1 gene. Exogenously expressions of Stat3, PDK1 and SP1 were carried out by transient transfection assays. PDK1 promoter activity was measured by Secrete-Pair Dual Luminescence Assay Kit. A nude mice xenograft model was used to confirm the findings in vitro. Results: We showed that ATL-1 inhibited human lung cancer cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found that ATL-1 stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, inhibited phosphorylation and protein expressions of Stat3 and SP1; the latter were abrogated in the presence of MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, ATL-1 reduced the protein, mRNA expression and promoter activity of PDK1. Intriguingly, exogenously expressed Stat3 and SP1 overcame ATL-1-inhibited SP1 and Stat3, and PDK1 protein expressions, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of PDK1 resisted the ATL-1-inhibited lung cancer cell growth. In consistent with the results in vitro, ATL-1 inhibited tumor growth, protein expressions of Stat3, SP1 and PDK1, and induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in vivo. Xiao et al.: Atractylenolide-1 Inhibits PDK1 Expression results show that ATL-1 inhibits lung cancer cell growth through activation of ERK1/2, followed by suppressing SP1 protein expression. ATL-1 also reduces phosphorylation and protein levels of Stat3. These are mutual regulation between Stat3 and SP1 proteins affected by ATL-1. This ultimately suppresses PDK1 gene expression. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which ATL-1 inhibits growth of lung cancer cells. Thus, targeting PDK1 pinpoints a potential in the lung cancer treatment.