Microencapsulated Pomegranate Modifies the Composition and Function of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) in New Zealand Rabbits
Previous studies demonstrated that pomegranate, which is a source of several bioactive molecules, induces modifications of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lipid composition and functionality. However, it remains unclear whether the beneficial effects of pomegranate are related to improvement in the lipid components of HDL. Therefore, in this placebo-controlled study, we characterized the size and lipid composition of HDL subclasses and assessed the functionality of these lipoproteins after 30
... proteins after 30 days of supplementation with a pomegranate microencapsulated (MiPo) in New Zealand white rabbits. We observed a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and non−HDL sphingomyelin, as well as increases in HDL cholesterol and HDL phospholipids after supplementation with MiPo. Concomitantly, the triglycerides of the five HDL subclasses isolated by electrophoresis significantly decreased, whereas phospholipids, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin of HDL subclasses, as well as the HDL size distribution remained unchanged. Of particular interest, the triglycerides content of HDL, estimated by the triglycerides-to-phospholipids ratio, decreased significantly after MiPo supplementation. The modification on the lipid content after the supplementation was associated with an increased resistance of HDL to oxidation as determined by the conjugated dienes formation catalyzed by Cu2+. Accordingly, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity determined with phenylacetate as substrate increased after MiPo. The effect of HDL on endothelial function was analyzed by the response to increasing doses of acetylcholine of aorta rings co-incubated with the lipoproteins in an isolated organ bath. The HDL from rabbits that received placebo partially inhibited the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In contrast, the negative effect of HDL on endothelial function was reverted by MiPo supplementation. These results show that the beneficial effects of pomegranate are mediated at least in part by improving the functionality of HDL, probably via the reduction of the content of triglycerides in these lipoproteins.