1912 Journal of the American Medical Association  
describes in the Siglo Medico, 1012, lix, 504, his extremely favorable experiences in six cases with injection of alcohol to deaden the superior' laryngeal nerve and thus put an end to the dysphagia* He found the P. Bonoour technic .preferable; first 1 c.e. of a 1 per cent, solution of novocain and epinephrin is injected, followed after live minutes by injection of 00 per cent, alcohol, unheated. The needle used is 4 cm. long and it is introduced in the median part of the neck, at the center of
more » ... k, at the center of a vertical line connecting the projection of the thyroid cartilage with the convex portion of the hyoid. When the needle has pierced the skin ¡mil muscle, there is a sensation as if it were in an open space; this is the small serous bursa described by Buyer. Once past this, the needle encounters the tough fhyrohyoid ligament. The n.lie is then directed horizontally backward and outward, parallel to the Upper margin of the thyroid cartilage, half a centimeter alune it, following this direction for about 2Y> cm. the patient suddenly experiences a sharp pain radiating to the ear, the signal that the nerve has been reached. Tbe advantages of this technic are that there is little danger of injuring bloodvessels as they lie back of the nerve us a rule, while Hie nerve is more directly accessible and the injection can be made on both sides without withdrawing the needle as the point can he turned to reach the nerve on both sides. lie describes six eases in which he applied the Holl'miitm technic but found it extremely painful while the anesthesia induced lasted only for a very few hours or days. With the above Bonoour technic the anesthesia averaged twenty days up to a month's duration, and the nerve could be blocked I hus repeatedly ns needed. Tbe experiences of others jn this line are reviewed. Dairy Products in the Tropics.-It has been found difficult to maintain dairy animals in hut countries, consequently these regions ure not plentifully supplied with dairy products except in the form of condensed milk, evaporated cream and tinned butter. In Hongkong, according to the Scientific American, a dairy was established twenty-five years ago but was operated for fifteen years without profit. The herd was completely wiped out three times before a successful method of feeding could be evolved. This problem has been solved by feeding the cows partly on Guinea gruss, a native growth, and the fodder of other soils from temperate latitudes. The herd now consists of over 450 head of the best milking Strains und the dairy is on a dividend basis of about 18 per cent. In the Philippines a large tract of land about twelve miles from the city of Manila hus heen sei apart for dairying purposes und cattle are being imported from Australia. The enterprise Is under government, supervision. A dairy is also being established at Singapore., one of the great problems in the tropics, aside from the difficulty of feeding the cuttle, is the prevention of disease among them. After long expérience at Hongkong, disease is largely prevented by a rigid system of quinan-, line and stall feeding of the cattle. Visitors from ot lier parts of the island on which Hongkong is situated, or from China, in,' mil allowed access to 1 lie herd except under the strictest precautions against the carrying of disease. The employees are required to change their clothing betöre entering or leaving the premises anil Hie cattle-sheds are screened against disease-' bearing insects. Angioneurotic Eruption Due to Acetylsalicylic Acid.-II. B. Anderson ( Cuiitiiliiin I'niet. nuil Her.. September) cites two such cases. The first was that of a woman aged about 40, who had suffered from acne rosacea with slight digestive disturbance and constipation, hill who was otherwise »quite healthy. She had exhibited a peculiar suscepi iliilily to many drugs, such as quinin, atropin and morphin, She contracted a mild attack of influenza with slight feverj malaise and pains. Hearing her drug Idiosyncrasy in mind, Anderson prescribed acetyl» salicylic acid (aspirin) in 5-grain doses. Alter taking the first dose she became nervous; pulse was rapid, and she felt very weak. Following the second dose, the patient's face and lips swelled, with irregular swellings of the type of an angioneurotic edema over tbe extremities ul Ihe same time. The drug was discontinued mid the symptoms disappeared within the next twenty-four hours. The second case was a similar one. The administration of acetylsalicylie acid in ."»-grain doses was promptly followed by a marked generalized iirticarial eruption. The itching was intense, the lips swollen and the face so swollen as to close the eyes. The cutaneous manifestations were accompanied by marked general depression, nervousness and discomfort. The patient immediately recognized an effect similar to that experienced when the drug was taken on previous occasions. The drug was promptly discontinued and the eruption gradually cleared up within a couple of days. Carbon Tetrachlorid as a Solvent.-Carbon tctriii-hlorid has heen adopted as a solvent, in industrial extraction processes as a substitute for bcnzin und has given excellent results in certain cases. One of its chief advantages is its lack of inllumninhilily and danger ol explosion which has made it particularly useful in dyeing and cleaning establishments. It is a. definite chemical compound having the ' formula CCI, and is completely volatile without imparting any odor to the muterial on which it is used. It dissolves fats and oils readily and does not leave a ring or halo us does bcnzin. It, hus a lower heating point than the petroleum fractions generally employed and a higher specific gravity and, therefore, like carbon dlsiilphid, has the advantage of being heavier than water, It is somewhat more expensive than bcnzin and the loss in extraction processes is greater. C. Baskerville and II. S. Biederer {Jour. Indus!, and 1-lny. Chcm., September, 1012) have made some studies of the solvent properties of carbon tetraohlorid on asphalts, bitumins, etc., cellulose acetates and nitrates, rubber, alcoholic gums, water gums, shellac, rosin, waxes of various kinds and fats. The results of their tests show that it has rather limited use as a solvent for these substances except in the case of the fats and oils, camphor and waxes. Tables are given of the solubility of various inorganic substances in carbon tetraohlorid. Sterilizing Water in the Pipes.-As is well known, distilled water is undesirable and unpalatable for drinking purposes on account of the absence of soluble gases, which renders it, fiat and tasteless» J. L, Sammis {Jour, Imlust. ami Eng, Chem., September, L912), says thai the possibility of pasteurizing water for drinking purposes as it Hows from the pipes has attracted little attention. lie desoribes u method applied to the water system by which water flowing through a small pipe can he momentarily heated to 7!) to 82 C. by which means disease germs, such as those producing typhoid fever und dysentery, etc., are destroyed while the water is under pressure und it does not lose its dissolved gases or palate» bility. The water then can he quickly cooled ill the pipes by means of a. cold water jacket. Only a small proportion of the water used in a building would require heating for drinking purposes but, the entire quantity for all purposes could he run through the jacket to aid in cooling (he water. This would he desirable anywhere hill especially so where the water-supply Is known to be contaminated. The method can be used in office buildings, factories, schools, etc.. where steam pressure is maintained throughout the summer. The amount' of Steam required is small. An illustrai ion of the beating CO" ami the cooling apparatus as connected with the steam and water pipes is given In the article. Germans Test Dairy Products.-The German Agricultural Society arranges annual ocean voyages in connection with expositions, for the purpose of testing Ihe stability of dairy .1 other food articles which are intended to keep for prolonged periods in ¡ill sorts of conditions. The voyage takes four n.His, going from Bremen to Australia and hack, CTOSS' ing the equator twice. On their return the goods are tested U Bremen by judges and scientists.-Creamery and Milk /'/""' Monthly.
doi:10.1001/jama.1912.04270100238017 fatcat:gfidxiaa45aizgbiktaoye2bzu