Recent American and Foreign Patents

1868 Scientific American  
The brine from these springs results fr om water penetrat ing immense subterranean deposits of rock salt, made by the natural evaporations of salt water lakes, like the Great Salt Lake, Caspian Sea, etc_, whicjl lakes existed in geological periods millions of years ago, the basius forming them being afterward covered up by later deposits. They b�long all to the upper 8ilurian era, and afe at such great dppths that they are perhaps inacceSsible to mall, but the way the salt is ob tained there is
more » ... ob tained there is so economical that .it is far superior to the �luarrying done in dry saIt mines; it is simply pumped up in �olution through comparatively narrow and inexpensive tubes. When we take in consideration that most of the natural rock saIt has to be dissolved, filtered, and I'ecrystal-1ized, we see here T, hat nature has done the dissolving and filtering, in fact the brine in Syracuse is BO clear that a !lim ]Jle evaporation, either by fire or solar heat, is sufficient to ]Jroduce a superior article of table salt, added, the temperature being kept at about 680 Fah. Fer mentation soon ensues, and when bubbles of carbonic acid gas are no longer evolved, the liquid is distilled to obtain the alcohol. A slngnlar gas explosion in anon well Is reported In the Tltnsville HertU(I. the like of which, It says, has never been known :n the oil regions. Wbl1e dr!1Iln!!: an 011 well, near Enterprise, the tools broke throngh the second sand rock Into a crevice where an Immense quantHy of gas had collected_ Thus liberated, the !!:a'srushed ont with a loud rumbling sound, tearing out tile drlvlnl:plpe and throwing It upward Into tbe derrick. A lond explosion en sued on the p,as becoming Ignited from the ftre In the engine, and the derrick and engine hou�e were both destroyed. The state owns the springs, pumps up the water, chiefly by the water power of that part of the Erie canal pafsing through Syracuse, and sells the bri· ne to the manufactur_ers of the salt. The total qUltntity of salt obtained in Onondaga county since 1797 is not less than 200,000,000 bushels, half of ·which wa6 obtained during' the last fifteen years. Each bushel contains 56 pounds of salt. Taking now in considera tion that one cubic foot of solid salt weighs 140 pounds, 15 cubic feet make a tun; The amount of salt, therefore, re moved during the seventy years thaI; the springs have been 'in operation amounts to 5,000,000 tuns or 80,000,000 cubic teet of solid salt. '{'his would form a single excavation in the earth of about 450 feet long, wide, and high; but the -salt is not all removed in one breadth and tbe excavations are certainly distributed irregularly, over a large extent of .subterranean territory. As the brine contains a bout 15 per -cent of salt, it took seven times that amount of water to dis-• ·solve it; 560,000,000 cubic feet or 5,000,000,000 gallons of water have· therefore all been evaporated by the heat applied during sev"nty years, and probably more, as the brines for merly used were not so strong by far as those obtained later by boring to a greater depth. lummary. GREEK FrnE.-In anticipation of further Fenian demon strations, a memorandum relative to the treatment of nitro glycerin and Greek fire has been i�sued in England by order of the Home Secretary. Of the former explosive, the simplest mode of di sposal recommended is 1.0 sink the containing ves sels in deep water without attempting to open them. True Greek .fire, it says, is simply a solid, highly-combustible com position, consisting of sulphur and phosphorus dissolved in the hi-sulphide of carbon, to which occasionally some min eral oil is added, with the view of increusing its incendiary power�. When the liquid is thrown on any surface exposed to the air, the sol vent evaporates, leaving a film of the phos phorus or sulphide of phosphorus, which then inflames spon taneously_ The proper mode of extinguishing such a fire is to throw damp sand, ashes, sawdust, lime, or any powder, wet sacking or carpeting, in short, any material which will ll.Xclude the air from the fire. No attempt should be made to remove the covering for some time after the flame hils been extinguished_ 'fhe place should afterward be thoroughly washed by a powerful jet of water forced upon it. CONCERNING FRO?;EN POTAToEs_-Dr. Adolph Ott, a frequent contributor to these columns, has been examining frozen 1)0tatoes for the purpose of confirming or disproving the truth of the common theory that the sweet principle of frozen po tatoes is due to the conversion,of starch into sugar. After a long series of experiments he concluded that this sweet prin ciple was caused, during the freezing and thawing, by the sap bursting the cell and thus destroying vitality; at the same time decomposition sets in, which, though refarded by the cold, is not entirely arrested; the more so as at the season most likely to freeze, and especially during a snow storm, there abounds that powerful oxidizing agent, ozone. 'flte outer portions, no doubt, are first attacked by it, and may thus be transformed tnto diastase, a body possessiug the power of converting a'comparatively large quantity of st�ch first into dextrine, and then, at the temperature of 140' to 1700 as in the process of cooking, into sugar. OBSERVfNG THE BESSEMER CONVERTER FLAME.-At thCil At las Steel Works, Glasgow, a very neat contrivance Ims for 'Some time been used for enabling the observer to det,errnine the point when the combustion of the carbon is completed. A square thin fmme contains a combination of colored glasses, for instanee, one dark yellow and two blue, or auy othar ·colors giving together a very dark neutral tint. Lookmg at the flame through these glasses afford s the double advantage of preserving the eye fr'lm unpleasant, effects of the intense light, and of making all smoke and other disturbing changes invi"ible_ 'L'he flame, when thus viewed, looks white so long as the intense briUian� due to the burning up of the carbon continues, but changes to a deep red at the moment all the latter has been consumed. The manufacture of starch from potatoes is extensively carried on in the Nortbernand Eastern States. Asinglellrmin New England consumed 25,000 bushels of potatoes for this purpose In 1867. THE POISON OF RATTLESNAKES.-A Philadelphia physician, Dr. S. W. Mitchell, has been experimenting upon the venom of rattlesnakes, and concludes that there is no antidote to the poison, the remedies usually applied being nearly or entirely useless_ Carbolic acid applied externally sometimes delays the result merely by affecting the local circulation. He has also confirmed the general belief that the poison is absolutely innocuous when swallowed, it being incapable of passing through the mucous surfaces; also that it is 80 altered during digestion that it enters the blood as a harmless substance_ The vellom·is not injurious to the rattlesnake itself or to any other of its own species_ The doctor attaches considerable value to large doses of alcoholic liquors, especially where the patient was not intoxicated at the time of being bitten. ==== ------=== == == == HOLDER FOR RAZOR STROP8.-George Scott, Steubenville, Ohio.-This in ventIOn relates to a holaer for razur st,rops, and to the manner of secUl'lng the strop thereto, and consists 1n making tbe holder of a mehllic spring band, curved or bent in the direction of its length, within the strop, extend ed between its t\\'o ends and there secured. atitsfull tension or thereabouts,. and also In so bfmding the ends to the band that the strop can be secured thereto without the use of rivets or any additional fastening devices of any nature. KNITTING M.aCHINE.---50 Henry Bogel, Watertown, Wis.-This invention re lates to a kn1tting' machine fer making' plain knit; fabrjcs of any number of stitcbes. It is of very simple construction, work:") almost Withou t any noise1 and can be eusHy taken apart for the purpose ot remDving or replaCing nee dles, and for repainng and cleaning the wbole machine. Two sets or needles, each working indl:'ptmdently of the other. are arranged in the maChine, of which both or either one may be operated at a time, and thus one or two pieces of fabric may be knit at oncc. WINDWHEEL_-Wm. C_ Day, Mohawk, N_ Y., and P. B_ Day, Shelby, MiCh. This invention relates to a wind wheel of that class in wllich vertical wjngs or sails are employed, and the .w bt'el enclosed witbin a box provided with doors, by opening or clOSing whiCh more or less wind is admitted to the wheel, and the speed of the same regnlated as drsired, and by closing the doors the motion of the wheel entirely stopned. Th e invent10n consists in the application to the doors of the box which encloses tbe wheel, 01 a chain or cord connected with a wjndlass, and arranged in SUCh a manner that by operatIng the wlndlsB" all the doors of the box may be opened and clOll ed simultaneously, and the wbeel kept rUIlning at a uniform speed, or stopped entirely, when required, with the greatest facility. SUBSOIL ATTAOHM1CMT FOR PLOW B.-Charles Hayden, Collinsville, Conn. ThiB lnventton reJates to a mode of attachin� a subsoil plow or share to an ordinary plow, whereby the share lD.3y be adjusted, ra1sed, or lowered, with far greaterfac1l1ty than hitherto,-readily detached when not reqnired for nse,"" that the plow to which it is applied may be nsed as an ordinary plow , be simple in constructitJn and capable of being manufactured at a small oost, and;be of light or easy draft. FOLDING Bow DISil FOR SPRING BALANOES.-Rlchard Mnrdock, Balti more. Md.-In this invention the dish' or platform upon WhlCll the articles are placed to be welgbed by a sprln!!: oalance is supported at its fonr corners by arms bowed or curved outward and so arranged tbat they can be re&dily llxed in position or not, and when no� in use, can be folded together npon the dish so as to occupy bnt little room. FRAME FOll Hop VINRs.-Abram Shoemaker and Wallace Phelps, Cones ville1 N. Y.-This invention relates to a useful Improvement in the construe tion and arrangement of frames for tralnllU!: hop vines. Hop PWKING TOOL.-John Dean, Baraboo, Wis.-Toi. Invention relates to a new deVIce for picking hops from the pole, and consists In the use of a rake with cnrved tines and with cntter. at the ends which serve to cut the vines as the tool is drawn along the pole. HYDRANT FIRE PLUG.-T. R. Bailey,Jr _, Lockport, N_ Y.-This invention relates to a method of constructing fire plugs or hydrants, and the Invention consists in operatin� a cylinder valve in a suitable CRse and in the arrange ment and combination of partB connected therewith. MAOHINE FOR COILING SPRINGs.-John Freeland and Dantel Ward, New York ctty.-This invention relates to a machiHe for eoUine: patent vo�ute and ot!:ler si1nilar springs while hot, and consists in a frame constructed wIth head and tail blocks Uke a tnrning lathe havin!!: suitable drivinl( gear and an adjnstable spindle or mandrill around which tbe .pring is coiled. UTILlZATION OF SPONGY CELLULosE .-In the process of mak ing paper·from wood, a8 practiced in Europe, round disks of wood are first subjected to the action of hydrochloric acid to ·dissolve out the spungy . cellulose. This latter has, until late ly, been a waste product, but is now converted into alcohol in this way: The wood is boiled for twelve hours in hydro ehloric acid, diluted with ten times its volume of water. The acid liquid, which is charged with grape sugar formpd from the spongy cellulose, is then withdrawn, the excess of acid '�"�t(jd with liwe or chlll k,ll.Ud " amllU quautity of yea�t is The Iron and steel work_ at Birmingham, Conn., used 4,000 tuns of scrap last year, making 3,500.tnns of ftni.hed iron, 350 tuns of Imported steel In car riage alii ,truck springs, a nd made 1,000 tnns of iron into axles of all grades and styles_ MM. Carver & Coo, of St_ Eteinne. France, have snccessfully utilized the gases given oif in conver1ing bItuminous coal into coke. These �ases are collected, drawn off into plpes, and cooled. From the lIquids, condensed benztne, naphtha, sulphate of ammonia, and several dyestuff's are made; the uncondensed gas is used for illuminating purposes. An establisbment in Vienna mannfactnreslmives from tullgst�ll s��e), whlCIl UfO eQ llarq as tOQutglu6a like tile diamond, BRIDGE_-Fr.derICIl: H_ Smith ,Baltimore, Md.-This Invention Ilas for its objeet to improve the construction of brldges so that any desired part of the bottom chord can be readily adjnsted to tighten or loosen any desired part of the bridge or to allow any desired part of the woodworl, to be removed and replaced. ANGULAR SHAFT CO UPLING" John M. Case, Athens, Ohio.-TlJis mventJon has for its object to furnish aIL improvel couplin� or gearin� for connect1ng sbaftR to each oHter at any desked angle which shall oe so COTI8tructC(! and arranged us to securel y couple the shafts, run with Ie .. noise. and with less friction than the ordinary bevel gearing. an<\ -willen sII �l1l\� till! saute ttmj) require leea lDlIt�1i31 for 11$ CQlll! tructlon. © 1868 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. MARCH 28, 1868.] SASH BEAD FABTENEE.-Daniel W. Dyer and J,meB H. McVaul(h, Philadel phia, Pa.-ThiB lnventlon has for its object to furnish an Improved means for removably securing sash beads to the casing which shall be simple in con· :8tructioD, easily attached, and eMily operated. LUBRIOATING Box FOJt CRANKS,ETC.-T. J . Rowley and Wm. Poland, Chil . 11cothe, Ohlo.-Tbe object of thIS invention is to feed the 011 for lubrication of cranks, crank PIll S or wrists, and journals, in statlonary bearings. ROLLING IRON, ETO.-W. P. Porter, Pittsburgh, Pa.-Thls Invention relates Jcittdifit blnatlon of two thicknesses of paper with an Intermediate layer of coarse linen. Tbls gRve ull the strene-th desired, but doubled or tripled both the cost and the clnmsiness of the article. A cheaper but less elrectlve expedl· ent Is adopted by some manufacturers, who paste a small patch of llnen un der the place of the button-hole. Mostofthese goods, however, are pUMhed without any strengthening whatever. We have just beell shown a novel speclnIen, having a perfect button-hole, durable enough for a hundred but tonings and nnbuttonlngs, yet not appreciably increa.lng the cost of manu fa ctnre. Indeed, it is said that the mathinery to be employed wl11 turn them to an Improvement In rOlling iron and other mctals in the form of railroad out cheaper than ever. The Improvement consists In binding the edge of tbe axles and other metal bars. rounded end or eye of the button·hole with a delicate film of sllvere' tnetal, ANVIL CUTTER,-Valmore A. DUDn,WestPeru, Mc.-This invention relates to an anvil cutter. and consists In a pair of shcars one jaw ot wbich i. fixed by an arm with a block or anvil, and the shears are thrown open by a spring. not over one thirtY'second ot an inch broad. and so thin as not to increase the thickness of the paper edge, Into which it is stamped witb a minute bead to bold It Immovably In place. The open ends of the metallic edging are each brought to a point and turned backward into the paper, so as not to catch and tear out., The button-bole works freely and fiexibly; and /lever BASIN WATER CocK.-Robert P. Ross, Bethlehem, Pa.-This invention con· �ists in arrang-lng a drop valve with an clast ic face which Is opl."rated by a .screw whereby all leakage is prevented. tears. This is a smaller Invention than the wIre connections tor Venetian blinds, and like many a small thing, will be among the most prOfitable of
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican03281868-198b fatcat:57z35t6tszaozez5n7movyhdxq