Epidemiology of Hepatic Angiosarcoma in the United States: 1964-1974
Environmental Health Perspectives
A nationwide survey of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) in the United States during the years 1964 through 1974 identified 168 cases. Of these, 42 cases (25%) were associated with known etiologic factors, such as vinyl chloride monomer exposure during preparation of poly(vinyl chloride), use of Thorotrast in angiography, exposure to inorganic arsenic, and treatment with androgenicanabolic steroids; 126 cases (75%) are of uncertain etiology. HAS most often affects males (ratio of approximately 3:1),
... proximately 3:1), peaks in the sixth and seventh decades of life (somewhat earlier than other sarcomas of the liver) and appears to occur more often in the industrialized Northeast and Midwest (although reporting artifact may be a factor). There is an extraordinary relative risk for poly(vinyl chloride) polymerization workers; there may also be other chemical-industrial associations that require further investigation. Prospective epidemiologic studies of HAS should be considered as a means of identifying other causative factors (e.g., chemicals or drugs) related to HAS.