Elucidation of Transport Mechanism of Paeoniflorin and the Influence of Ligustilide, Senkyunolide I and Senkyunolide A on Paeoniflorin Transport through Mdck-Mdr1 Cells as Blood–Brain Barrier in Vitro Model
The objectives of the present investigation were to: (1) elucidate the transport mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) across MDCK-MDR1 monolayers; and (2) evaluate the effect of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide I (SENI) and senkyunolide A (SENA) on the transport of PF through blood-brain barrier so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of PF were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral side (AÑB) and from basolateral to apical sides (BÑA). Drug concentrations were
... concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. PF showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) ranging from 0.587ˆ10´6 to 0.705ˆ10´6 cm/s. In vitro experiments showed that the transport of PF in both directions was concentration dependent and not saturable. The BÑA/AÑB permeability ER of PF was more than 2 in the MDCK-MDR1 cells, which indicated that the transport mechanism of PF might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased Papp of PF in AÑB direction by EDTA-Na 2 suggested that PF was absorbed via the paracellular route. The P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of PF in AÑB direction, and ER decreased from 2.210 to 0.690, which indicated that PF was P-gp substance. The transport of PF in AÑB direction significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. An increased cellular accumulation of Rho 123 and Western blot analysis indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had increased the transport of PF in the BBB models attribute to down-regulate P-gp expression. A decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) during the permeation experiment can be explained by the modulation and opening of the tight junctions caused by the permeation enhancer LIG, SENI and SENA.