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Direct optical access to the combustion chamber of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine provides extremely valuable information about the combustion process. Experimental measurements of the geometric characteristics of the turbulent flame—such as the flame radius, flame center, flame edges and flame brush thickness—are of fundamental interest in support of the development and validation of any combustion model. To determine the macroscopic properties of sprays and flames, visualization anddoi:10.3390/en13010189 fatcat:dd2rf5uiszbglghuejmb7mlzu4