Findings in physical examination of the external genitalia in pediatric age − different is not always pathological − Part I (male)
Findings in the physical examination of the external genitalia in children are often a source of concern for parents and caregivers, not only for the emotional significance that people unconsciously attribute to these structures (partly due to their reproductive function), but also for the physical and psychological impact in the child. Due to the child's close monitoring and periodic surveillance, the family physician has a key role in the identification and initial guidance of these cases.
... ectives: To review the evidence about main variations and anomalies of the external male genitalia in pediatric age regarding diagnosis and clinical approach in primary health care. Results: In most cases, anomalies in the external male genitalia represent variants of normal and/or do not significantly affect function, thus only requiring clinical surveillance and no intervention. However, some cases − as epispadias, hypospadias, and urethral duplication − require surgical intervention and early action is crucial for the success of implemented measures. Conclusion: Physical examination is a key aspect of child assessment. Although changes in physical examination of the external male genitalia mostly represent normality variants, clinicians should be able to recognize pathological changes and properly refer those cases without overloading health services or causing unnecessary anxiety to children and caregivers.