Increased Serum Immunoglobulin Responses to Gut Commensal Gram-Negative Bacteria in Unipolar Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder Type 1, Especially When Melancholia is Present
Major depression (MDD) is accompanied by higher serum IgM/IgA responses to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, suggesting increased bacterial translocation and gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis may occur in bipolar disorder (BD) and there are differences between MDD and BD type 1 (BP1) and -2 (BP2) in nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers associated with leaky gut. This study examines serum IgM/IgA responses directed to LPS of 6 Gram-negative bacteria in 29 BP1, 37 BP2, 44 MDD and 30 healthy individuals. MDD
... hy individuals. MDD plus BD was best discriminated from controls by increased IgM/IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BP1 patients showed higher IgM responses to Morganella morganii as compared with MDD and BP2 patients. Patients with melancholia showed higher IgA responses to Citrobacter koseri as compared to controls and non-melancholic depression. The total score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was significantly associated with IgA responses, especially C. koseri. IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein were significantly associated with signs of increased bacterial translocation. In conclusion, not only MDD but also BP1 and BP2 are accompanied by an immune response due to the increased load of plasma LPS of gut commensal bacteria while these aberrations in the gut-brain axis are most pronounced in BP1 and patients with melancholic features. Activated oxidative stress pathways and autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes in mood disorders may be driven by a breakdown in gut paracellular, transcellular and/or vascular pathways. If replicated, drugs that protect the integrity of the gut barrier may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for BP1 and MDD.