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This paper mainly investigates the sensitive characteristics of lithium-ion batteries so as to provide scientific basises for simplifying the design of the state estimator that adapt to various environments. Three lithium-ion batteries are chosen as the experimental samples. The samples were tested at various temperatures (−20 • C, −10 • C, 0 • C , 10 • C , 25 • C) and various current rates (0.5C, 1C, 1.5C) using a battery test bench. A physical equivalent circuit model is developed to capturedoi:10.3390/en11010019 fatcat:4skcbwh5l5fx7k4nhomx652m6q