Control of electron transfer by the electrochemical potential gradient in cytochrome-c oxidase reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The kinetics of electron transfer between cytochrome-c oxidase and ruthenium hexamine has been characterized using the native enzyme or its cyanide complex either solubilized by detergent (soluble cytochrome oxidase) or reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles (cytochrome oxidase-containing vesicles). Ru(NH3)2+6 (Ru(II] reduces oxidized cytochrome a, following (by-and-large) bimolecular kinetics; the second order rate constant using the cyanide complex of the enzyme is 1.5 x 10(6)
... e is 1.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, for the enzyme in detergent, and slightly higher for COV. In the case of COV the kinetics are not affected by the addition of ionophores. Upon mixing fully reduced cytochrome oxidase with oxygen (in the presence of excess reductants), the oxidation leading to the pulsed enzyme is followed by a steady state phase and (eventually) by complete re-reduction. When the concentrations of dioxygen and oxidase are sufficiently low (micromolar range), the time course of oxidation can be resolved by stopped flow at room temperature, yielding an apparent bimolecular rate constant of 5 x 10(7) M-1 s-1. After exhaustion of oxygen and end of steady state, re-reduction of the pulsed enzyme by the excess Ru(II) is observed; the concentration dependence shows that the rate of re-reduction is limited at 3 s-1 in detergent; this limiting value is assigned to the intramolecular electron transfer process from cytochrome a-Cua to the binuclear center. Using the reconstituted enzyme, the internal electron transfer step is sensitive to ionophores, increasing from 2-3 to 7-8 s-1 upon addition of valinomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. This finding indicates for the first time an effect of the electrochemical potential across the membrane on the internal electron transfer rate; the results are compared with expectations based on the hypothesis formulated by Brunori et al. (Brunori, M., Sarti, P., Colosimo, A., Antonini, G., Malatesta, F., Jones, M.G., and Wilson, M.T. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 2365-2368), and their bioenergetic relevance is discussed with reference to the proton pumping activity of the enzyme.