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Honeydew is a carbohydrate-rich solution excreted by phloem-feeding insects such as aphids. Ants often consume this substance and, in return, protect aphids from natural enemies. This indirect benefit of ant-aphid mutualisms to aphids (reduced predation) has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have quantified the direct benefits that aphids may gain from the mutualism. We conducted greenhouse experiments to estimate the direct benefits that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii (Glover)doi:10.1653/024.096.0329 fatcat:yywou5tuszfclbxkdto3q4bmxe