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Smallpox vaccinations were stopped globally in 1980. Recent studies have shown that in women, being smallpox vaccinated was associated with a reduced risk of HIV infection compared with not being smallpox vaccinated. At the initial infection, HIV-1 most often uses CCR5 as a co-receptor to infect the T-lymphocytes. We therefore investigated whether smallpox vaccination is associated with a down-regulation of CCR5 on the surface of peripheral T-lymphocytes in healthy women in Guinea-Bissau.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207259 fatcat:ydg35zuvjzdvtio46suh6fz6qe