MELM: Data Augmentation with Masked Entity Language Modeling for Low-Resource NER

Ran Zhou, Xin Li, Ruidan He, Lidong Bing, Erik Cambria, Luo Si, Chunyan Miao
2022 Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)   unpublished
Data augmentation is an effective solution to data scarcity in low-resource scenarios. However, when applied to token-level tasks such as NER, data augmentation methods often suffer from token-label misalignment, which leads to unsatsifactory performance. In this work, we propose Masked Entity Language Modeling (MELM) as a novel data augmentation framework for low-resource NER. To alleviate the token-label misalignment issue, we explicitly inject NER labels into sentence context, and thus the
more » ... ne-tuned MELM is able to predict masked entity tokens by explicitly conditioning on their labels. Thereby, MELM generates high-quality augmented data with novel entities, which provides rich entity regularity knowledge and boosts NER performance. When training data from multiple languages are available, we also integrate MELM with codemixing for further improvement. We demonstrate the effectiveness of MELM on monolingual, cross-lingual and multilingual NER across various low-resource levels. Experimental results show that our MELM presents substantial improvement over the baseline methods. 1 * Ran Zhou is under the Joint Ph.D. Program between Alibaba and Nanyang Technological University.
doi:10.18653/v1/2022.acl-long.160 fatcat:daqnn2myf5fplihvwb3fs5k37y