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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 8%. More than 80% of patients are diagnosed at an unresectable stage due to metastases or local extension. Immune system reactivation in patients by immunotherapy may eliminate tumor cells and is a new strategy for cancer treatment. The anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab and anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab have been approved for cancer therapy in different countries. However,doi:10.3390/ijms19113584 fatcat:36x4w2su5nanbd6uevrkrtf66u