Adjoint-Derived Impact of Assimilated Observations on Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) and Hurricane Matthew (2016)
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
The adjoint-derived observation impact method is used as a diagnostic to derive the impact of assimilated observations on a metric representing the forecast intensity of a tropical cyclone (TC). Storm-centered composites of observation impact and the model background state are computed across 6-hourly analysis/forecast cycles to compute the composite observation impact throughout the life cycle of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) to evaluate the impact of in situ wind and temperature observations in
... observations in the upper and lower troposphere, as well as the impact of brightness temperature and precipitable water observations, on intensity forecasts with forecast lengths from 12 to 48 h. The compositing across analysis/forecast cycles allows for the exploration of consistent relationships between the synoptic-scale state of the initial conditions and the impact of observations that are interpreted as flow-dependent interactions between model background bias and correction by assimilated observations on the TC intensity forecast. The track of Hurricane Matthew (2016), with an extended period of time near the coasts of Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas, allows for a comparison of the impact of aircraft reconnaissance observations with the impact of nearby overland rawinsonde observations available within the same radius of the TC.